1. Concept of Organisation:
Organisation is a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuously basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
2. The systems approach on leadership and management:
(a) An organization is the sum of all its parts.
(b) Every aspect of a system is important; if one is ineffective, there are negative effects in other parts.
(c) An organization is not a closed entity.
(d) Each organization is unique because interacting parts and environments are not identical.
3. Concept of Organizational structure:
Organisation structure comprises functions, relationships, responsibilities, authorities, and communications of individuals within each department. The typical depiction of structure is the organizational chart. Types of structures:
(a) Functional – Divided according to specific functions
(b) Matrix – Arranged according to projects
(c) Divisional - Organization is split up into a number of self- contained units.
4. Tall versus Flat Organizations
(a) Tall structure:
* Decentralized authority
* Many authority levels
* Narrow span of control (No. of people reporting directly to a person)
(b) Flat structure:
* Centralized authority
* Few authority levels
* Wide span of control
5. Organizational Culture:
The set of values and norms that are shared by staff and which control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders. Organisational culture determines the goals to be pursued and the standards of behaviour to adopt to attain goals.
6. Weberian Bureaucracy and Structures in Schools Max Weber (1947) proposed bureaucracy as the basis of organizational structures. Characteristics of bureaucracies:
(a) Division of labor and specialization of tasks
(b) Impersonal relationships
- scientific approach in decision-making
- decisions based on facts not affections or feelings