LANGUAGE AND POWER
WHAT TYPES OF POWER ARE THERE?
LANGUISTIC FEATURES WHICH EXERT POWER
FAIRCLOUGH’S MODEL (2001)
POWER IN SPOKEN DISCOURSE
POLITENESS IN CONVERSATION
That held by POLITICIANS, the POLICE, and those working in LAW COURTS
Power held as a result of their OCCUPATION or ROLE
Power held as a result of SOCIAL VARIABLES such as CLASS, GENDER AND AGE
Power used to INFLUENCE or PERSUADE
Power used to MAINTAIN and ENFORCE authority
DECLARATIVE SENTENCES signal authority and a lack of ambiguity
IMPERATIVE SENTENCES generally detail what the reader needs to do to get the full benefits
MODAL AUXILARY VERB
EPISTEMIC MODALITY – such as ‘shall’ and ‘will’ which strongly clarify any elements of possibility, probability or certainty.
DEONTIC MODALITY – such as ‘must’ which express degrees of necessity and obligation
Other language features checklist:
✓ Discourse structure: How is the text organised to exert its power?
✓ Lexis and Semantics: What connotations of lexical choices exist? E.g. property and excluded which has strong connotations of control and prohibition
According to Fairclough, advertising exits as a prime example of ideology at work through building a relationship between the text producer and receiver. This is done by constructing a ‘product image’ that, in turn,...