Identification and Description of the Communicable Disease Outbreak
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major causes of death and disability worldwide due to a single infectious agent, ranking second only to HIV/AIDS. Overall, one-third of the world’s population is currently infected with the TB bacillus, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) (2014), in 2013 an estimated 9 million people fell ill with TB and 1.5 million died from the disease.
People with a weakened immune system have a greater chance of becoming sick with tuberculosis, particularly if they are also infected with HIV. TB is one of the major causes of death in people who are HIV-positive. One fourth of all HIV-related deaths have been attributed to TB and over 95% of TB related deaths have occurred in developing countries (World Health Organization, 2014).
The countries with the highest incidences of TB in 2012 were Swaziland and South Africa and affected 1349 and 1003 per 100,000 people, respectively. It is of no coincidence that the highest prevalence of HIV also occurred in these countries. In Swaziland and South Africa, the prevalence of HIV was 27.4% and 18.9% of the population (ages 15-49), respectively (World Development Indicators, n.d.).
In the U.S. the incidence of TB in 2012 was 3.6 per 100,000 people (and an unrecorded HIV prevalence rate) (World Development Indicators, n.d.). Locally, in the State of Washington, in 2012 there were 185 per 100,000 TB cases and 10 reported deaths due to TB in 2012. In my community of Clark County, Washington there were 8 cases of TB at a rate of 1.6 cases per 100,000 population (Washington State Department of Health, 2014).
According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It most often attacks the lungs; this is referred to as pulmonary TB. It is capable of attacking other parts of the body (i.e. the larynx, lymph...