A truss is essentially a triangulated system of (usually) straight interconnected structural elements; it is sometimes also referred to as an open web girder. The individual elements are connected at nodes.
A truss in architecture and engineering is a timber or metal structural member that is formed of one triangle or a series of triangles in a single plane. A truss requires less material than a solid beam in attaining long spans for carrying heavy loads.
The connected pieces forming the top of a truss are called the upper chord, and those forming the bottom of a truss are called the lower chord. Individual sloping and vertical pieces connecting the chords are called web members, and the whole assembly of these pieces is called the web. At panel points, where the individual pieces intersect, the pieces are connected by bolts, rivets, or welds.
The framing carried by a truss generally is designed so that loads bear on the truss at the intersections of a chord and web member. As a result, the chord and web members are subjected only to tension or compression, and thus less material can be used than what is needed when the truss members also have to resist bending.
Three of the better-known types of trusses (all patented in the 1840's) are the Howe truss, named after the American engineer William Howe; the Pratt truss, named after the American engineer Thomas Pratt; and the Warren truss, named after the British engineer James Warren.
A truss gives a stable form capable of supporting considerable external load over a large span .The individual pieces intersect at truss joints, or panel points. The connected pieces forming the top and bottom of the truss are referred to respective