The Thirty Years War
The Thirty Years War took place in Europe and lasted from 1618 to 1648. It was a series of wars that broke out involving most European countries. The Thirty War was one of the longest, bloodiest, and most destructive wars in European history which resulted in a significant decrease in the European population. The War was largely fought as a war of religion between the Protestants and the Catholics, therefore it can be said the Thirty Years War was a vast Civil War fought amongst the European countries over religious toleration, at least for the most part. However politics and the balance of power did play a significant role in the war as well.
The Thirty Years Wars war began after the peace Treaty of Augsburg (signed in 1555 by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) put a temporary end to the war between the German Lutherans and Catholics. The treaty stated the rulers of each German state could choose the religion of their state, whether Lutheran or Catholic, and compel there subject to follow that faith, Lutherans can continue to practice their religion, Lutherans could keep the land captured from the catholic church, and princes and bishop who converted to Lutheranism had to give up their land. The Peace of Augsburg had brought a temporary truce in the religious quarrel in the German states. However, the settlement only recognized Lutherans and Roman Catholics, but the rise of Calvinism made gains in a number of states. The Calvinists began to demand recognition of their rights, although this did not directly result of the beginning of the Thirty Years War, it did reanimate the tension between the Protestants and Catholics.
In 1617 Ferdinand of Styria was elect to be king of Bohemia by the Bohemian Diet. Within two years’ time Ferdinand, who was a member of the Habsburg family, was elected to become the Holy Roman Emperor. Ferdinand's election alarmed the Bohemian Calvinists, because he was an ardent supporter of the Catholic cause; the...