Unsuccessful Recruitment and Retainment of Minority Nursing Students
An Integrative Review
S. Allison Bernard
University of Massachusetts Amherst
This paper performs an integrative review of the literature exploring the relationship of social determinants of the minority nursing student’s environment influencing successful outcomes in nursing programs in the United States. Literature published between 2005 and 2014 was reviewed using PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature Plus, and Cochrane Library. The Social Ecological Model was employed as a theoretical framework for analyses. Analysis of this literature reveals that the environment at multilevel influences unsuccessful outcomes in nursing school for many minority nursing students. Most of the research obtained focused on factors preventing program completion for baccalaureate minority nursing students. There was little research knowledge on the experiences of doctoral minority students or factors inhibiting program completion for doctoral minority students. Therefore, research exploring doctoral minority student’s strengths on addressing environmental influences is justified.
Key words: social determinants barriers, ethnicity, underrepresented minority, nursing education nursing graduate programs,
The nursing profession lacks diversity in the 21st century. The unsuccessful recruitment and retainment of nursing students contribute significantly to this longstanding phenomenon. This issue of underrepresentation of minority nurses in the profession is especially significant since it has resulted in the professions’ inability to provide the diversity required to care for the exponential increase in cultural and linguistic diversity of the population the United States will experience (Loftin, Newman et al. 2012).
The National League of nursing (NLN, 2010), The Institute of Medicine, (IOM, 2008), and the American Association of College of Nurses...