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Qualitative Analysis of Cations 1- Na+, K+, Nh4+, Ag+, Cu2+, Bi3+

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Aim:
 To determine the presence of the cations Na+, K+, NH4+, Ag+, Cu2+ and Bi3+ in the solution under analysis.

Procedure: Please refer to page 26-27 of CHM152/154/2252 Laboratory Manual.

Results:
Procedure No and Ion Test Reagent or Technique Evidence of Chemical Change Chemical(s) Responsible for Observation Equation(s) for Observed Reaction
1. Na+ Perform flame test by dipping a test loop in test solution and putting in Bunsen flame after cleaning the loop with HCl(aq) A brilliant yellow persistent flame occurs Presence of sodium in the test solution                             -
2. K+ Perform flame test by dipping a test loop in test solution and putting in Bunsen flame after cleaning the loop with HCl(aq). Observe flame through a cobalt blue glass. A lavender flame occurs and the flame is observable through the cobalt blue glass. Presence of potassium in the test solution                                   -                            
3. NH4+ Heat 5mL of the test solution in a beaker. Test the gas evolved with damp red litmus paper. The damp red litmus turns blue Ammonia gas.                             -                        
4.   Ag+ Add HCl(aq) to original solution. Formation of a white precipitate of AgCl HCl(aq         Ag+(aq)+Cl-(aq)   AgCl(s)                            

5. Ag+ Add NH3(aq) to the previous white precipitate The precipitate dissolves.   NH3(aq)         AgCl(s)+2 NH3(aq) ⇌ [Ag(NH3)2]+ (aq) + Cl-(aq)
6. Ag+ Add drops of HNO3(aq) and test with blue litmus until acidic. The litmus paper turs red. The white precipitate reappears HNO3(aq [Ag(NH3)2]+ (aq) + Cl-(aq)         AgCl(s)+2 NH3(aq)

2NH3(aq) +2H3O+(aq)         2NH4+(aq)+2H2O(l)
7. Cu2+ Add NH3 (aq) to the supernatant. Formation of a deep-blue solution NH3(aq) Bi3+(aq)+3NH3(aq)+3H2O(l)         Bi(OH)3(s)+3 NH4+(aq)
Cu2+(aq)+ 4NH3(aq)       [Cu(NH3)4]2+(aq)

8. Centrifuge the deep-blue solution A clear supernatant and a deep blue precipitate....

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Qualitative Analysis of Cations 1- Na+, K+, Nh4+, Ag+, Cu2+, Bi3+. Anti Essays. Retrieved December 11, 2018, from the World Wide Web: http://trenmayamx.com/free-essays/Qualitative-Analysis-Of-Cations-1-Na-728559.html