Lesson 03.06 Mutation
1.Describe how mutations lead to genetic variations.
By producing random changes in an organism's genetic code. This causes a different protein to be produced, or none at all. Usually has a negative effect, due to an important protein, e.g. an enzyme, not being produced, so the organism cannot do a certain thing (e.g. digest fats), occasionally makes an organism better able to survive (positive effect). This means that it is more likely to survive and pass the mutated (beneficial) gene on to it's offspring.
2. Which appears to be more dangerous: the BRC1 or BRC2 mutation?
There's a somewhat higher risk for breast and ovarian cancer with BRCA1 mutations than with BRCA2 mutations but breast cancer in males is associated with BRCA2 mutation. In my opinion, they are equally bad and I have yet to come across a published article that convinces me otherwise.
3.Analyze a woman’s risk of dying of cancer if she carries a mutated BRC1 gene.
Risk of dying depends on what type of cancer is present. It can be very treatable, or the patient who tests positive for having the mutation might never develop the cancer.
4.How do heredity and inheritance relate to the data presented in these charts?
So most cases of breast cancer occur after the woman has had children, so the gene, if it is present, is passed on to her children before she knows she knows that she has cancer, she might also be a carrier - spreading the mutation, but she herself is not affected.
5.What data would you need to see in order to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of preventive surgeries?
Testing positive for BRCA1 cannot determine the likelihood of death, it that depends on stage, grade, hormone receptor status, etc.
6.What does the age at diagnosis tell you about the mutation?
In general, the mutations causing early onset of disease (i.e., in childhood or early adulthood, when they affect the reproductive potential...