4. Earth’s environmental spheres include the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere.
The atmosphere is the gaseous envelope of air that surrounds Earth; contains complex mixture of gases needed to sustain life.
The hydrosphere is composed of water forms and is the moisture source for most precipitation
The cyrosphere is water frozen as snow and ice and a subcomponent of hydrosphere.
The biosphere is composed of all parts of Earth where living organisms can exist in its broadest and loosest sense; includes vast variety of earthly life forms (biota).
The lithosphere is the solid, inorganic portion of Earth, composed of rocks of Earth's crust and broken particles of mineral matter that overlie the solid bedrock
5. A closed system is a system in which no substantial amount of materials can cross its boundaries whereas an open system allows energy and/or materials to freely cross its boundaries.
6. When a system is in equilibrium it means that over times its inputs and outputs are in balance; the conditions within the system remain the same.
8. The four inner terrestrial planets are smaller, denser, less oblate and rotate more slowly compared to the Jovian planets with are larger, less dense, oblate and have rapid rotation. The terrestrial plants are composed mainly of mineral matter, whereas the Jovian planets are composed of hydrogen and helium gases and methane and ammonia ice.
10. Earth is almost, but not quite spherical. This is because its surface flattens slightly at the North Pole and the South Pole and bulges out slightly around the equator, making the diameter through the poles slightly less than a diameter of a cross section through the equator.
11. Latitude: A description of location expressed as angle north or south of equator; horizontal lines parallel to equator.
Longitude: An angular description of E-W location; vertical lines through the poles; each is a great circle.
Parallel: A line...