In chemistry, hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of
mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the
qualitative description of atomic bonding properties. Hybridised
orbitals are very useful in the explanation of the shape of molecular
orbitals for molecules. It is an integral part of valence bond theory.
Although sometimes taught together with the valence shell
electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory, valence bond and
hybridization are in fact not related to the VSEPR model.
Chemist Linus Pauling first developed the hybridisation theory in
of molecules such
as methane (CH4). This concept was developed for such simple
chemical systems, but the approach was later applied more widely,
and today it is considered an effective heuristic for rationalizing
the structures of organic compounds.
Hybridisation theory is not as practical for quantitative
calculations as molecular orbital theory. Problems with
hybridisation are especially notable when the d orbitals are
chemistry and organometallic chemistry. Although hybridisation
schemes in transition metal chemistry can be used, they are not
generally as accurate.
Orbitals are a model representation of the behaviour of electrons
within molecules. In the case of simple hybridisation, this
approximation is based on atomic orbitals, similar to those
obtained for the hydrogen atom, the only atom for which an exact
analytic solution to its Schrödinger equation is known. In heavier
atoms, like carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, the atomic orbitals used
are the 2s and 2p orbitals, similar to excited state orbitals for
hydrogen. Hybridised orbitals are assumed to be mixtures of these
atomic orbitals, superimposed on each other in various...