HOW TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION IN MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICAN (MENA)
Human capital is treated as the key point of determining the economic growth. MENA region noticed this and over the last forty years had remarkable investment on education in order to strength the human capital. However, the outcomes on economic growth did not pay off the big portion of investment. In this paper, it will be discussed what is the problem, why the problem occurs, and how to improve it through three different directions.
The Middle East and North African regions include 21 countries. They are Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malta, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, West Bank and Gaza, and Yemen (World Bank). The region is bound by the commonness of Islamic religion and the uniform spoken language of Arabic. With a population of more than 330 million in the MENA region, it is not surprising to see differences in social stratification and economic development between countries. For example in Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates, which are all oil exporting countries, citizens tend to have higher income than citizens of Egypt, Jordan, and Morocco. The oil boom in the 1970s was able to help the MENA region to expand the social services and basic social foundations. Based on research from the World Bank, from the 1970s to the 1990s, the MENA region had faster economic growth than any other region except East Asia. Revenues from the oil production are the principle source of funds throughout the MENA region, and the central government is in charge of storing and distributing the profit. Due to the factors: such as heavy reliance on oil, weak economic base, high population growth and unemployment rates, dominance of the state in the economic sector, low level of integration with the world, underdeveloped financial and capital market, underdeveloped...