History of Psychology
It is interesting how the word psychology came about, it was actually from two Greek words psyche and logos. Psyche meaning soul and logos meaning the study of a subject. Early 18th century it had acquired the meaning as “the study of the mind”.
Psychology’s Early History
A New Science is born. Wilhelm Wundt was the founding father of psychology. 1879 was the date of birth of psychology as Wundt had established the first research in psychology at University of Leipzig.
Structuralism Versus Functionalism. G. Stanley Hall established Armerica’s first research laboratory in psychology at Johns Hopkins University in 1883 and four years later launched the first America’s psychology journal. He was also behind the establishment of American Psychological Association (APA) and elected the first president.
Edward Titchener brought his own version of Wundt’s structuralism to America. Structuralism was based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related. Structuralists want to identify and examine the fundamental components of conscious experience, such as sensations, feelings and images. Depend on method called introspection: the careful, systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience.
William James was the brilliant American scholar who came up with functionalism. He was impressed with Charles Darwin concept of natural selection: heritable characteristics that
provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be “selected” over time. Functionalism was based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure.
James McKeen Cattell and John Dewey investigate on mental testing. New topics then attracted the first women named Mary Calkins into the field of psychology....