Greece and Rome
Ancient Greece and Rome is a period of about 900 years, when ancient Greece and then ancient Rome (first as a Republic and then as an Empire) dominated the Mediterranean area, from about 500 B.C.E. - 400 C.E. We tend to lump ancient Greece and Rome together because the Romans adopted many aspects of Greek culture when they conquered the areas of Europe under Greek control (circa 145 - 30 B.C.E.).
The form of government associated with the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations both greatly influenced other governments of the modern world. Both the Roman republic and Greek democracy used similar ways in which they granted citizen rights and managed their city-states. They differed most significantly with regard to their methods of decision-making and distributing power.
The Roman Republican and Greek Democracy had many different ups and downs, positives and negatives that made each so different. Both civilizations had great influences on the governments of the modern world. However, they did have many crucial differences that made them stand out. Rome was a republic, in which the citizens chose their leaders by voting, while Greece had a direct democracy, in which all citizens directly took part in making decisions relating to the government. Both forms of governments were alike in their share of citizen rights, and management of the city-states. Nonetheless, there were a number of differences in ways power was divided among government officials from the upper-class.
The ancient Greeks were the first Western culture that believed in finding rational answers to the great questions of earthly life. They assumed that there were consistent laws which governed the universe—how the stars moved; the materials that compose the universe; mathematical laws that governed harmony and beauty, geometry and physics.
Both the Ancient Greeks and the Ancient Romans had enormous respect for human beings, and what they could accomplish with their minds and...