General Chemistry I
Chapter 1 Notes
What is Chemistry? The study of matter and its changes.
What is matter? Anything that has mass and occupies space.
What are changes? Physical and chemical based on physical and chemical properties.
II. Properties of Matter:
Extensive Properties: property which depends on the amount of a substance present. Examples: mass, volume, length
Intensive Properties: property which does not depend on the amount of a substance present. Examples: color, smell, hardness, density, physical state, boiling point, melting point, freezing point.
Chemical Properties: properties that are measured or observable by changing the chemical composition or identity of a substance. Examples: flammability, combustibility, corrosivity, oxidation.
Chemical Changes: burning, reacting, rusting, oxidizing.
Physical Properites: properties that are measured or observable by not changing the chemical composition or identity of a substance. Example: color, mass, volume, density, hardness, physical state, melting point, boiling point, freezing point.
Physical Changes: tearing, pouring, boiling, freezing, measuring
III. Scientific Method and Experimentation:
Scientific Method is a structured and organized series of steps taken in an experiment to ensure a consistent, reproducible, and controlled outcome.
We need to be sure that when we are attempting to prove or disprove a topic in question that we take all necessary measures to ensure accuracy and precision in our results and that we truly prove that the outcome was due to one factor and not the other. Meaning: the result was not due to chance but rather a particular factor.
We call these the control (factor held constant) and the variable (factor that is changed or varied).
Steps in the scientific method:
1) Observations (Pose your question)
2) Hypothesis: an educated prediction of outcome...