Counter–urbanisation question ( 40 marks )
Counter-urbanisation is the movement of people from major cities or large town’s (e.g St. Ives in Cambridgeshire) to less urbanised and rural areas beyond the outer suburbs. The main reason that counter-urbanisation takes place is because of the push and pulls factors that are associated with it.
Some of the main push factors associated with counter-urbanisation are that people want a better quality of living; they want to be able to live in an clean and quiet environment without air and noise pollution; they wish to escape the high levels of traffic congestion; and they want to escape the dirt and crime that urban environment offers e.g London City Centre. Furthermore, most people aspire to have larger houses with more land or large gardens for lower and cheaper prices when compared to the urban areas which have seen a huge increase in price over the past ten years, resulting in poorer or low income families struggling to afford the houses. Finally, large companies such as American Air Filters have set up factories in rural areas making it more attractive for people to relocate to the area e.g Cramlington. The pull factors associated with counter-urbanisation also have a large impact within the process, for example houses in smaller settlements in rural areas are often less densely populated than those in the larger cities such as Birmingham. People believe that living in locations that are quieter and with less pollution will improve their quality of life. Additionally, some rural settlements such as Cramlington have had improvements in their communication service which makes it easier for people to live and work in these less populated areas. Furthermore, there have been improvements with road and rail links so that it is easier to transport into work in the urbanised areas from the rural areas.
The impacts associated with counter-urbanisation can be split into positive and negative, for example in rural areas...