Beginning of Civilization
to the Fall of Rome
Fall of the Roman Empire
February 3, 2012
BIBL 104 B70
3200 BC - Rise of Sumerian civilization in Mesopotamia.
Although new archeological sites found may be older than the civilization in Sumer, there is some disagreement on whether they were large enough to be considered an actual city. So “the traditional view is that cities arose about 3000 BC in Sumer, the home of the earliest Civilization” (Perry, 2009, p. 7). The Sumerians settled in Mesopotamia, which is now presently Iraq, in the marshlands of the lower Euphrates. Mesopotamia means “land between two rivers” in Greek, and this name fit well since the land there was in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The Sumerians transformed this marsh land into farmable land with much work and imagination. Their chief crops were barley and dates; they must have dug canals and irrigation ditches to drain the swamps off which is quite an accomplishment. This was not their most major achievement though. They invented a style of writing called cuneiform which helped them to communicate ideas that really caused them to advance and become a great culture of their time, besides being the first recognized civilization. Some of the ideas they are credited with really surprised me! They built houses, palaces, and temples out of bricks; bronze tools and weapons; developed an early money system, and traded with others to sustain their population with things they did not have available locally. The Sumerians were a religious people, like most civilizations of that era, so they also came up with religious and political institutions and literature; schools, art; codes of law; medicines; and a lunar calendar (Perry, 2009, p. 10).
2600–1250 BC, Minoan Civilization settled in Crete
The Minoans were a very skilled, organized, and peaceful people according to archeological evidence that has been unearthed...