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Cellular Respiraton Essay

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Below is an essay on "Cellular Respiraton" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.

Cellular respiration is a catabolic pathway in which the chemical energy of food molecules are released and stored in form of chemical bonds of glucose.   Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are all acceptable fuel sources in cellular respiration, but glucose is preferable. (Tortora, 909).   The energy in glucose is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a high energy molecule, in which cells use to supply their energy demands.   Cellular respiration occurs in three main stages: glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain.   Cellular respiration takes place in two phases, anaerobic and aerobic.   The anaerobic phase takes place in the absence of oxygen, broken down by a series of catabolic reactions into pyruvic acid.   Each glucose molecule that is converted into a pyruvic acid molecule yields two molecules of ATP.   The aerobic phase takes place in the presence of oxygen where glucose is completely broken down into carbon dioxide and water.   Theses reactions generate 36 ATP molecules for eukaryotes and 38 ATP for prokaryotes (the 2 less ATP for eukaryotes has to do with the expenditure of pumping pyruvate into the mitochondrion).
The literal meaning of glycolysis is to split sugar, which is exactly what this process is accomplishing.   Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm and is an anaerobic process (does not involve oxygen) consisting of a 10-step metabolic pathway that converts one 6-carbon glucose molecule into into two 3-carbon molecules of pyruvic acid.   Even though glycolysis consumes two ATP molecules, it yields four actual ATP molecules, for a net gain of two ATP molecules by substrate-level phosphorylation.   Substrate-level phosphorylation is the process whereby a phosphate group is transferred directly to ATP.   There are two stages.   The first stage is the preparatory stage in which two ATP molecules are used to phosphorylate one 6-carbon glucose and catabolize it into 3-carbon molecules.   The energy conservation stage is which the two...

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