Brazil officially named, as Federative Republic of Brazil is the largest country in both the South America and the Latin American region. It is world's fifth largest country both by geographical area and population. It is one of largest Portuguese speaking country in the world and only one in the Americas. Bounded by Atlantic Ocean on an east, Brazil has the coastline of 7,491 km. All other South American countries except Ecuador border it and Chile and it occupies 47.3% of a continent of South America. Its Amazon River basin includes the vast tropical forest home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems and the extensive natural resources spanning numerous number protected habitats.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to landing of traveler Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500, which claimed the area for Portugal. Brazil remained the Portuguese colony until 1808 when capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro after the French forces invaded Portugal. In 1815, it was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon formation of Brazil, United Kingdom of Portugal and Algarves. Its independence was achieved during 1822 with the creation of Empire of Brazil, unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary system. The country became the presidential republic in 1889. An authoritarian military, Junta had led the nation from 1964 to 1985. Brazil's current Constitution, formulated in 1988 which defines it as the federal republic. The Federation is composed of union of Federal District, 26 states, and the 5,570 municipalities.
The country's economy was world’s seventh largest by both its nominal GDP and the purchasing power parity in 2012. It is a member of BRIC group and until 2010 it had one of the world’s fastest growing major economies with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition and influence. Brazil’s national development bank plays...