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Biology- Maintaining a Balance Essay

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1. Most organisms are active in a limited temperature range
Identify the role of enzymes in metabolism, describe their chemical composition and use a specific model to describe their specificity on substrates

Molecules: Consist of atoms

Enzymes: Break the molecule bonds, but need energy to do so – ACTIVATION ENERGY (required to start chemical reaction)

  1. The role of enzymes in metabolism
      1. Metabolism refers to all the chemical reactions occurring in organisms
      2. Enzymes are biological catalysts for all processes going on inside cells.
      3. They are able to be used over and over again
      4. They increase the rate of chemical reactions at lower temps and decrease the activation energy needed for metabolic reactions to occur

  2. Chemical composition of enzymes
      5. enzymes are made up of proteins
      6. i.e. long chains of Amino Acids
      7. When enzymes denature the cross linkage bonds are broken, protein loses its normal shape and becomes inactive
      8. The substrate is the molecules which the enzyme acts upon

  3. enzyme specificity on substrates
      9. The Chemical on which an enzyme acts is called a substrate
      10. The active site of the enzyme fits the substrate like a lock and key
      11. They are highly specific in their actions; this means that each enzyme acts on one substrate only

  4. Models to explain specificity:
      12. The Lock and key model states that the substrate fits exactly into the active site of the enzyme like a key fits a lock. Assumes the enzyme has a rigid and unchanging shape

Substrate
Bonds In Substrate Are Weakened
PRODUCTS
Active Site
ENZYME
ENZYME-SUBSTRATE
ENZYME
Substrate
Bonds In Substrate Are Weakened
PRODUCTS
Active Site
ENZYME
ENZYME-SUBSTRATE
ENZYME

  1. The induced fit model states that the binding of the substrate to the enzyme ‘induces’ a temporary change in the shape of the enzyme. The new shape of the enzyme better...

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