Believing You can get Smarter Makes You Smarter
Ademola P. Tayo
Professor Gail Allen
Over the years, the subject about the nature of Intelligence malleability or flexibility has become a controversy with different school of thoughts believing or had several opinions regarding whether intelligence is fixed or flexible. The articles “Believing you can Get Smarter Makes you Smarter” by the American Psychological Association displays the erroneous belief that intelligence or smartness is restricted to a particular race or social groups. According to the American Psychological Association, ruminating on intelligence as flexible or changeable rather than stable and fixed, results in greater academic achievement, especially for people whose groups bear the burden of negative stereotypes about their intelligence (APA 2003 para 1 ).
Although intelligence has various definitions by different scholars, but it is pertinent to give one before I proceed. Simply put, intelligence is the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills. Also according to Alan E., Kazdin (2000), intelligence refers to the intellectual functioning of the brain. It is clear from this definition that the nature of intelligence cannot be fixed or stable because human nature itself is not stable. People have different experience, skills and knowledge. Owing to this, it suffice that people have different ability and therefore different level of intelligence.
However, let me quickly states that the different levels of intelligence by different people do not suggests what has been the norms in the society for several decades. It is widely believed that some racial or social groups are smarter or more intelligence than others. In fact APA confirms
Despite a lot of evidence...