* Streptomycin sulfate which is the first aminoglycoside available for clinical use derived from the bacterium Streptomyces griseus in 1944.
* Inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis; actericidal effect
* Aminoglycosides are for serious infections, and currently used to treat pseudomonas aeruginosa infection include gentamicin, tobramycin, and amikacin.
* The aminoglycoside antibiotics are used against gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli, proteus spp., and pseudomonas spp. Som gram-positive cocci are resistant to aminoglycosides, so penicillins or cephalosporins may be used. However, aminoglycosides are not effective in treating MRSA.
* They are almost exclusively used to treat gram negative infections but are also used in lower doses in addition to beta lactams (ie. nafcillin) to provide a synergistic effect.
* A common place for this is in the treatment of endocarditis. Clinical application: to treat bacteremia, endocarditis, health-care and nosocomial pneumonias, intra-abdominal infections, and others.
* In combination with gentamicin or streptomycin, penicillin G and ampicillin facilitate the intracellular uptake of the aminoglycoside, which causes the subsequent bactericidal effect against the enterococci.
* Amikacin sulfate (Amikin): effective against gram-negative bacteria, including those resistant to other aminoglycosides. Used for respiratory tract, bone joint, skin, and soft-tissue infections.
* Gentamicin sulfate (Ganamycin): To treat serious infections caused by gram-negative organisms (e.g., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus); to trat pelvic inflammatory disease; effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.
* Kanamycin sulfate (Kantrex): used orally for hepatic coma. Effective against gram-negative bacteria with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
* Neomycin sulfate Myciguent (Neo-Fradin): decreases bacteria in the...