AIDS is an advanced stage of disease caused by Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-types 1 and 2. The infected person consequently comes down with AIDS-defining conditions of 1993 expanded AIDS-case definition, as a result of marked reduction in the CD4+ T-cell mediated immunity with a count (<200/µl ). Analysis of data from articles, Journals, textbooks, case reports and publications by WHO, and CDC, shows a global increase in number of people living with HIV-with about 25% in sub Saharan Africa. In the U.S, Blacks/African Americans and Hispanics/Latinos and American Indians are infected the most. There is also a decline in number of new cases of HIV. This could be attributed to anti-AIDS campaigns, preventive measures in place and availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which has helped to reduce the burden of the disease and its transmission and progression to advanced stage. Regrettably, the rapid mutation rate of HIV makes it difficult to develop a vaccine against AIDS.
Keywords: HIV; AIDS; HAART; CD4+ T-helper cells
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease that weakens the immune system to the point where an affected person is vulnerable to a wide range of infections and cancers that result in death if not treated. AIDS is caused by Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV is a small single stranded RNA enveloped virus with a size of about 100-120nm. It belongs to a family- Retroviridae and genus- Lentivirus, and contains ribonucleic acid (RNA) as its genetic material. There are two subspecies, namely HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV is inert outside a living host, hence absolutely requires a living host cells in order to multiply. HIV usually attaches to the CD4 + receptors and co receptors especially CCR5 and CXCR4, through which it gains entry and replicates inside the host...