Carson, Robert C., Butcher, James N., Mineka Susan (1998). Abnormal Psychology and Modern Life (10th edition). Longman: An imprint of Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. New York
Biologically based theories:
Coma and convulsive therapies
Pharmacological method (drugs)
Psychologically based theories:
Interpersonal relationship therapies
Most of us have experienced a time or situation when we were dramatically helped by "talking things over" with a relative or friend. Or perhaps we made a drastic change in our customary behavior after a particular event led to new understanding. As the noted psychoanalyst Franz Alexander (1946) pointed out long ago, formal psychotherapy as practiced by a mental health professional shares many aspects in common with this type of familiar experience. Most therapists, like all good listeners, rely on a common repertoire of receptiveness, warmth, empathy, and a nonjudgmental approach to the problems their clients present. Most, however, also introduce into the relationship psychological interventions that are designed to promote new understandings, behaviors, or both on the client's part. The fact that these interventions are deliberately planned and systematically guided by certain theoretical preconceptions (of the kind discussed in Chapter 3) is what distinguishes professional psychotherapy, the treatment of mental disorders by psychological methods, from more informal helping relationships. As we will see, it is the varying nature of these theoretical concepts that largely distinguishes a given type of psychotherapy from the others available.
Psychotherapy is based on the assumption that, even in cases where physical pathology is present, an individual's perceptions, evaluations, expectations, and coping strategies also play a role in the development of the disorder and will probably need to be changed...